Some people believe that Naturalism is virtually synonymous with realism. Even Emile Zola (one of the earliest ''champions'' of Naturalism) often used the terms 'interchangeably' for Naturalism and Realism. But the New Wave mentioned that Naturalism and Realism different and each one represented two different formal projects. Also, the movement which 'moved beyond' naturalism rejected Naturalism as a particular tradition of theatrical practice and this moved also to the directors, critics and also the writers. In the post-war context, Naturalism was quite a ''shorthand'' for the practices of the theatre before 1956, the chosen form of the directors, dramatists and critics that associated with it.
In modern societies, he argued, the highly complex division of labor resulted in "organic" solidarity. Different specializations in employment and social roles created dependencies that tied people to one another, since people no longer could count on filling all of their needs by themselves. In "mechanical" societies, for example, subsistence farmers live in communities which are self-sufficient and knit together by a common heritage and common job. In modern "organic" societies, workers earn money, and must rely on other people who specialize in certain products (groceries, clothing, etc.) to meet their needs. The result of increasing division of labor, according to Durkheim, is that individual consciousness emerges distinct from collective consciousness—often finding itself in conflict with collective consciousness.