In "Titian's Prudent Dissent: Painting Religion in the Disciplinary Years," Augusto Gentili sees Titian as "openly hostile to the bureaucratic rules and theological subtleties both of the ‘Papists' and the ‘Lutherans.'" Titian, thus, "tends toward an immediately understandable, highly individualist religion that is inevitably disturbing because subject to increasingly impelling forms of control." To resist all control, Titian, like many of his contemporaries, gets back to basics in a "highly sentimental, Christ-centered religion."
In the mid-18th century, the philosopher Edmund Burke hypothesised a connection between aesthetics and fear. In a similar vein, the poet Rainer Maria Rilke proclaimed: ‘beauty is nothing but the beginning of terror’. To put this association to the test, I, together with Kendall Eskine and Natalie Kacinik, psychologists at CUNY, recently conducted another experiment. First, we scared a subset of our respondents by showing them a startling film in which a zombie jumps out on a seemingly peaceful country road. Then we asked all of our subjects to evaluate some abstract, geometric paintings by El Lissitzky. Those subjects who had been startled found the paintings more stirring, inspiring, interesting, and moving. This link between art and fear relates to the spiritual dimension of wonder. Just as people report fear of God, great art can be overwhelming. It stops us in our tracks and demands worshipful attention.