It is has been established that the length of the need has an impact of the pain experienced; longer needles are more likely to reduce the pain perceived. Current recommendations are inch needles for infants and newborns, 1 inch needles to be used for toddlers and adolescents, and inch needles to be used for adults. The recommended needle gauge has been established to be 23-25. In addition, rapid injection has been established to lessen the pain experienced. In addition, it has also been found that when administering several injections, the pain scores experienced during the first needle is significantly lower than the pain scores experienced during the last injection. Lastly, using the Z-track administration technique lessens pain by reducing leakage and irritation of the medication in the needle into the subcutaneous tissues (Abdel Razek & El-Dein, 2009). Z-tracking technique involves pull the skin about 2-3 centimeters aside before injection, followed by releasing the skin immediately after removing the needle, which results in a disjointed pathway that locks down the medication in the intended place.
As the CIA later admitted, they should have put the names of Almihdhar and Alhazmi on a watch list at this time. The watch list, a database known as TIPOFF, currently consists of over 80,000 names, with about 2,000 new names being added every month. [ Los Angeles Times, 9/22/02 ] Regulations require that the list is checked for visa applications or whenever someone enters or leaves the US (note that it is not checked for domestic flights). Officials are liable to be subject to criminal penalties if they fail to consult TIPOFF when required. The Congressional inquiry noted that “the threshold for adding a name to TIPOFF is low,” explaining that even a “reasonable suspicion” that a person is connected with a terrorist group, warrants the addition of the person’s name to the database. [ Congressional Intelligence Committee, 9/20/02 ] Why were Almihdhar and Alhazmi, whose names were reportedly important enough to have been mentioned to the CIA Director several times that January [ Congressional Intelligence Committee, 9/20/02 ], not added to the watch list?